Mortgage and Portfolio Loan Guide

The Mortgage Collateral

The Property Piece of the Mortgage Puzzle

It’ game time. You have the steady job. Your down payment is sitting safely in your bank account. Your credit expert helped you get things cleaned up. You’re now ready to buy a home! It’s time to put together the last piece of the mortgage puzzle, the property. This is where the fun begins. The factors to consider when figuring out what home fits you the best are endless. This should help you gain an understanding, and a snapshot on how the process works when you find the home of your dreams.
 
Collateral
 
The home you are purchasing is the collateral being used to secure the financing you’re getting. If you expect a lender to give the green light to finance a home for you, be prepared for them to perform due diligence as well. Your lender will have certain standards that the property needs to meet. 
 
Inspection
 
Once your Realtor has helped you negotiate an amazing price, it’s time to order the inspection. Although lenders mortgage collateraldon’t typically require a general inspection to be completed by a licensed inspector, it’s highly recommended that you get one yourself. Your Realtor usually will have a couple recommendations of credible inspectors in your area. An inspection can cost anywhere from $300 to $800 depending on the scope of work and the property size. Your inspector will examine each component of the house in order to give an opinion on what meets code (electrical, HVAC), what doesn’t meet code, and what the estimated remaining life of items might be (water heater, roof, furnace). The cost that you pay for an inspection pales in comparison to the value you receive by knowing exactly what you’re “getting yourself into” with a potential home purchase.

Appraisal

Your lender will require an appraisal to be completed, and will submit an order through a third party. There is no need to order your own appraisal because privately ordered appraisals cannot be used or considered by a lender. The cost can vary depending on scope of work and property size. Typically $400-$750. The purpose of an appraisal is to get an opinion of fair market value of a home, and to find out if there are any serious issues with the home (peeling paint, broken windows, mold…). The appraiser will physically go out to the property to do an general inspection, take pictures, and take measurements. The appraiser will pull records of recent sale history for similar properties that have sold within the area of the home you’re buying. He/she will take into consideration the square footage, amenities, condition, age, and other important factors that contribute to value. The appraiser will make specific adjustments to value based on how those factors compare to the actual property being sold. By doing that, the appraiser can make an educated decision of what people are willing to pay for a home that is similar to the one you’re buying. This is called the sales comparison approach. This approach gives the best indication of what the fair market value is because it’s based on what people are actually willing to pay in that given market. If any repairs needed are noted by the appraiser, there is a strong likelihood that those repairs will need to be completed. You don’t necessarily want to make any repairs, nor will you be authorized in most cases, because you don’t own the home yet. What if you spend $100, and a Saturday afternoon installing a rail on a porch, just to find out you can’t close on the home for other reasons? Doesn’t make much sense.

Property Type

  • Single family home – This is your typical stick built, built from the ground up, free standing home. You’ll be required to maintain your own landscaping, snow shoveling, and exterior maintenance. You may or may not have an organized homeowners association (HOA) in your neighborhood. The HOA will help with general street maintenance and neighborhood needs. Be mindful of what the HOA fees are because it can have an impact on your debt-to-income ratio. In some areas you may think you’re buying a single family home, but find out too late that it’s a “site-condominium”. Depending on your loan program, your lender may have to do a more extensive review of the property and HOA if the home is found to be a site-condo.
  • Condominium – This can be a home in a community of 1 or 2 story homes that are attached, or a building of many stories containing units stacked on top of one another (like an apartment building). You own the interiorcollateral mortgage of the home. The exterior is typically maintained by the HOA, so the HOA fees are typically more costly on a condo. There are usually amenities like a pool and exercise facility among other things. Condos are popular for people who want to enjoy the benefits of homeownership, but pass on the headache of maintaining anything outside the home. Condos require a more thorough review than any property type. The lender will examine the financials of the HOA in detail. They’ll look for things like reserves, delinquent owners in the community, and insurance coverage. If you are getting an FHA loan or a VA loan, you can find out what condos are already approved in your area. For FHA approved condos in your area click hereFor VA approved condos in your area click here
  • Townhome – A townhome can be a very similar setup as the condo that’s in a community with 1 or 2 story homes that are attached. With a townhome you do own the land outside but the HOA will cover day to day maintenance usually. Your lender will contact the HOA, but typically will not be as strict on guidelines as they would be on condos.
  • Manufactured home – These are homes that are built in a factory and placed on a piece of property. It can be a challenge to find a lender for manufactured home financing. One of the reasons many lenders do not offer financing on manufactured homes is because manufactured homes typically depreciate in value. In other words, the value of the home will likely decrease over time. Whereas the value in a single family home, condo, or townhome, will typically increase (appreciate). Of course the housing meltdown in recent years has made many people question that fact. But historically, real estate is a great investment, and will appreciate in value.  
  • Multi-unit – any property that is being sold as piece that has several functional dwellings (units). These are duplex (2 unit home), triplex (3 unit home), and fourplex or quadplex (4 unit home). You can obtain a residential mortgage on multi-unit homes as long as they are 4 or less units. Anything with 5 or greater units will require a commercial loan. Multi-unit homes are a great way to supplement your income and have your mortgage paid for by the tenants.

Escrow Account

  • General – Your escrow account is a cushion set aside so that you have adequate funds available to pay your taxes and insurance when they are due. At closing you’ll pay for your full year of homeowners insurance, and several month’s worth of your taxes (depending on the time of year and frequency of taxes due). In your mortgage payments moving forward you’ll pay a fraction of your annual homeowners insurance and taxes. Each payment will contribute to your escrow account so that enough is accumulated when the next tax or insurance bill is due. Your lender will manage your escrow account for you. This keeps things simple for you because you do not have to worry about having to pay a large bill for taxes and insurance two or more times per year. It’s all included in your payment so you have less responsibility to manage. If you have a FHA loan, VA loan, or put less than 10% down, you’ll be required to have an escrow account with your lender.
  • Insurance – You’ll need to obtain an insurance policy to cover unexpected, significant damage on the home. Each property type will have different requirements, and needs that will be covered. Your Realtor and your lender can give you insight on what type of coverage to get. Certainly the insurance agent you choose will be the expert in that field on what coverage you need.
  • Real Estate (property) Taxes – Be mindful of how much the taxes on your property are. This can make a significant difference on your budget and your debt-to-income ratio. Your taxes are likely to fluctuate, which can cause an adjustment in your monthly escrow payment.

Congratulations! 

With the information you’ve been able to acquire by skimming through the “keeping your home loan process simple” series, you’re now more prepared than the vast majority of home buyers. Use this as a reference. Use it as a tool to come back to as you get closer to being ready to take the next step into the American dream. Subscribe by email to stay in the loop on the latest and greatest info on homeownership, and balanced living.  

A few closing tips…

From Livingston County, Michigan expert, and licensed inspector, Dominic Vagnetti of Inspections on Demand. 517-540-0800

 

-Roof conditions and foundations are the two most worrisome items for buyers. Roofs are a disposable product and we want to start paying extra attention as they reach their 20th birthday. We are seeing longer lifespans from dimensional (or architectural) designs, however exceptions are always present. Curling, granule loss, missing shingles are things a buyer can see driving up to the property.

-Foundation cracks can be problematic but are most commonly superficial. Look for signs of water leakage that would require injection sealant, gaps larger than 1/4 inch, or horizontal cracks which can be signs of significant movement.

-Foundation waterproofing and drainage are mostly typical of 1970s and newer homes. Prior to that, sump crocks and foundation drain lines were either not present or poorly designed. Signs of water damage or flooding can be found by examining homeowner belongings on the floor or looking for stains on wood walls or shelving. It can be important to differentiate between ongoing flood issues and a single water event like a water heater failure or leak in a pipe.

 

  

Do you have to prove your savings to buy a home?

The Asset Piece of the Mortgage Puzzle

There you are, Mr. Hotshot at the blackjack table. You sat down with a hundred bucks, now you’re up two grand. You’re feeling good, top of the world really, and decide maybe it’s time to call it a night. You cash in your chips with a smile on your assets gamblingface thinking how proud your wife is going to be for the first time in years. Things have been a bit rocky since back in ’06 when you bought her that vacuum for Christmas. But not this time. Today you’re a winner. With these winnings in hand, you finally have enough money saved to move out of mom and dad’s basement and buy a house! Monday morning comes around, and you’re devastated. Your buddy at Easy Peazy Funding has to break it to you that the $2,000 deposit that you made into your bank account needs to be sourced if you want a mortgage. There needs to be a paper trail proving where that cash came from. You’re confused because there is no way to prove you made that money from using mind power, and pure skill. When the denial letter comes in the mail your wife kindly throws your clothes into the front yard. She leaves a note saying something about California, and heading west. The rest is history.

Depressing right? Let’s try to make sure you’re doing all the right things to prepare for buying a home. In this portion of the “keeping your home loan process simple” series, the asset piece of the mortgage puzzle is given to you in a gift basket.

When you’re purchasing a home, get all of your financials in one place so they are easily accessible. You’ll need funds for down payment, escrow account (for taxes and insurance), closing costs, and general reserves. Along with all of your pay information, you’ll need bank statements, retirement statements, brokerage account statements, and proof of any other account you’re using to qualify.

Bank statement

  •  Be ready to provide 2 months consecutive bank statements, including all pages. If it says page 2 of 6 anywhere on the assets for mortgagepage, provide all 6 pages.
  • Make sure that your statement shows your name, address, bank name/logo, account number, balances, and activity on the account. If any of those items are missing you’ll need to provide more information. Many times an online print-off will show your account number, but not your name.
  • Non-sufficient fund (NSF) fees will be evaluated. If you show a habit of having NSFs, your lender may decide that pattern is an indication that you’re not ready to buy a home.
  • If the statement you provide is a shared account (someone other than you is also on the account), the individual you share the account with will need to provide a letter confirming you have full access to the funds.
  • Large deposits need to be sourced. If there are any deposits on your bank statement other than your normal income; you will need to provide a paper trail proving where those funds came from. All jokes aside, you may actually be able to use gambling winnings if the casino provided a slip or coupon confirming the amount won. If you sold a vehicle or jewelry you’ll need a bill of sale. Don’t accept cash from the buyer, ask for a check. Additionally, you’ll need to provide a 3rd party opinion (kelley blue book for example) of value in order to confirm the sale price was not unreasonably higher than fair market value. This is to prevent fraud. So Johnny can’t sell his ford escort to his “neighbor” for $10,000. There might be something fishy going on there in the eyes of your lender.

Retirement and Brokerage Accounts

  • If you’re liquidating retirement funds you should be able to print off a most recent quarterly statement. If you are taking out a loan against your 401k your lender will factor that liability into your debt-to-income ratio. In some cases you may have an additional tax penalty if you withdraw retirement funds prior the being 59 1/2.
  • Above and beyond a recent statement, you’ll need to provide proof the funds needed for closing have been liquidated. You’ll also need to show where those same funds were deposited into. It’s wise to deposit those funds into the same bank account that you’ve already provided statements for. The goal is to keep it simple, so putting those funds into a different account could open a new can of worms.

Gift Funds

It’s acceptable to receive gift funds to help with down payment. Each loan program has it’s own guidelines pertaining to gift funds, but here are a few general points to keep in mind:gift from family
  • The person “gifting” the funds needs to be a family member, or someone with an obvious close personal relationship (like a fiance).
  • You both will need to sign a letter confirming the amount and purpose of the gift funds. The letter will also need to confirm there is no expectation of repayment to the donor (the person gifting the funds). They will also need to show their ability to gift the funds by providing 2 months bank statements.

  Grants

Some states and communities offer grants to assist homebuyers with down payment. As long as the entity providing the grant is credible, the lender should accept the grant as an asset because typically a grant does not require repayment. Some grants require a homebuyer course to be completed by the borrower prior to being eligible for the grant. This is to ensure the individual is aware of the pros and cons of homeownership.
There are many unexpected expenses when buying a home. Cash is king, have your assets in place. Aside from lender requirements there are so many things to consider. Carpet, fence, paint, new locks, blinds, and so much more. If you feel like every penny is being scrutinized by your lender, you’re probably right, and it’s truly for your protection. If you feel like things are getting a bit too tight, it might be best to reconsider your price range.


A couple closing tips… 

Bank statements are valid for 60 days. If you’re house hunting for 5 months, send your lender new bank statements as they become available.

Do not overextend yourself. There will always be something that comes up that never crossed your mind. Leave yourself a cushion for those expenses so you can sleep at night.

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